ANT Lawyers

Vietnam Law Firm with English Speaking Lawyers

ANT Lawyers

Vietnam Law Firm with English Speaking Lawyers

ANT Lawyers

Vietnam Law Firm with English Speaking Lawyers

ANT Lawyers

Vietnam Law Firm with English Speaking Lawyers

ANT Lawyers

Vietnam Law Firm with English Speaking Lawyers

Thứ Năm, 23 tháng 5, 2019

Visa, Work Permit and PIT – What Enterprises Should Consider When Employing Foreign Workers in Vietnam



Enterprises employing foreign workers in Vietnam should be aware of issues on visa, work permit, liability of enterprise related to Personal Income Tax (PIT) of the foreign employee as declaration, payment and finalization to ensure legal compliance.

Visa

Foreigners eligible working in Vietnam are foreign investors whom contribute capital to set-up company in Vietnam, chief representative of NGO, lawyers licensed by Vietnam Ministry of Justice, foreigners workers with valid working permits in Vietnam. Working visa in Vietnam is granted to foreigner working legally in Vietnam. Working visa for foreigner in Vietnam has maximum length of 12 months. In the case the foreigner wishing to stay longer, he/she could apply for temporary residence card for a period of up to three years. The application must be submitted to the provincial Immigration Department, and may include supporting documents such as a housing lease contract and an employer’s certificate of incorporation.

Work permit

Decree No. 102/2013/ND-CP elaborating some articles of the Labour Code on foreign workers in Vietnam states that for foreigners that requires work permit in Vietnam, the employing enterprises will have to apply for work permit for such employee before they start working. The head of the provincial People’s Committee will have to approve the necessity to hire foreigners before the Vietnam Department of Labour, Invalid and Social Affairs (DOLISA) grants work permit in Vietnam. For foreigners belonging to one of the cases exempted from work permit, the employing enterprises will have to request the provincial DOLISA where foreign workers regularly work to certify that such foreign workers are exempted before the day on which they start to work.

Personal Income Tax obligation

Foreigners whom are subject of Personal Income Tax (PIT) in Vietnam are resident and non-resident workers. Foreigners who reside in Vietnam for less than 183 days in a tax year are considered non-residents for tax purposes. The first tax year is the consecutive 12 months period from arrival date in Vietnam, and the second tax year will follow the calendar year. Non-resident foreigners working and earning income in Vietnam are subject to PIT at a flat rate of 20%. Foreigners who reside in Vietnam for 183 days or more in a tax year are considered tax residents in Vietnam and subject to PIT at progressive rates on their world-wide employment income. Incomes of foreign workers in Vietnam are based on salaries, wages, allowances and other benefits such as housing allowances, memberships at sport and health clubs, personal entertainments. The expenses not being subject to PIT are including return air tickets between Vietnam and home country of the foreigners, school tuition fees of children of foreigners which employing enterprises pay on their behalf.

Vietnam has signed double tax agreements (DTA) with a number of countries, in which tax exemptions may be applied in specified circumstances. To request for tax exemptions, the application has to submit the request to the Ministry of Finance.

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The Essential Information on Certificate of Origin from Vietnam



According to Decree No. 31/2018/ND-CP guiding Law on Foreign Trade Management in terms of origin of goods: “The Certificate of Origin means a written form or other form of equivalent legal validity granted by competent authority belonged to country, group of countries or territories exporting the goods based on regulations and requirements of origin, specifying origin of this goods”.

We comprehend that the Certificate of Origin (hereinafter referred to as “C/O”) is certificate of goods origin issued by a country (export country) to confirm goods produced and distributed by this country in the export market in accordance with the rules of origin to create the most favourable conditions for goods importing to other country (import country) on tariffs. C/O is an important instrument in importing and exporting goods.

Functions of C/O

Tariff preferences: Determining the origin of goods help us differentiate the import goods enjoyed tariff preferences to apply the preference regime according to trade agreements as signed by the countries.

Anti-dumping duty and anti-subsidy duty application: In the event that goods is dumped or subsidized in the market of other country, determining the origin of goods shall make anti-dumping duty and anti-subsidy duty application possible.

Statistics of trade and maintenance of quota system: Determining the origin of goods make compilation on statistics of trade of country or area easier. On this basis, competent authority of trade can maintain the quota system.

Category of C/O

Non-preferential C/O means a ordinary C/O confirming the origin of product from a specific country.

Preferential C/O means a C/O allowing the product eliminated or reduced from the country’s permission such as: Generalized Systems of Preferences (GSP), Commonwealth Preference Certificates (CPC), Common Effective Preferential Tariff (CEPT),…

The Agency granting C/O

Ministry of Industry and Trade of Vietnam is the agency granting Certificate of Origin directly or authorizing Vietnam Chamber of Commerce and Industry (VCCI) or other organization to issue Certificate of Origin.

According to the prevailing law, the treaty signed by Vietnam and the provision of import country on Certificate of Origin, the Ministry of Industry and Trade stipulates the regulation on selection of trader, procedure of self-certifying the origin, obligation and liability of self-certifying the origin, inspection of the self-certifying of origin of goods exported by traders and remedy.

Process of issuing C/O

When applying for C/O for the first time, the trader shall have to submit dossier to competent authority.

Dossier includes:

– Request for Certificate of Origin;

– Form of C/O filled in full into 01 (one) original copy and 03 (three) copies. The original copy and one of the copies shall be sent to the Importer by the Exporter and the Importer shall submit such instruments to competent authority in loading port or unloading port. The second copy and the third copy shall be saved by the agency issuing this C/O and the Exporter respectively. In case of import country’s requirement, the applicant can request the Agency issuing this C/O to grant more than 03 (three) copies of C/O;

– The declaration of completing the customs procedure at competent authority (certified copy with signature of competent persons), excepting the case it’s not necessary for export goods to declare according to the laws. The applicant of C/O shall have the right to submit this instrument no more than 30 (thirty) days from the date granting C/O in case of legitimate reasons.

If necessary, the agency issuing C/O may require the applicant to provide another instruments relating to export product such as: the declaration of importing material; the certificate of export; sales contract; VAT invoices; sample of material or product; bill of lading; air way bill and other instruments relating to origin of export goods..

Relating to enterprise participating eCOSys, all instruments shall be made by trader via electronic system and automatically transferred to agency issuing C/O. The agency issuing C/O bases on electronic dossier to check validity information and grant C/O to trader as soon as receiving full dossiers in hardcopy.

The agency issuing C/O informs the result of submitting dossier via eCOSys no later than 06 (six) working hours from receiving validity electronic dossier.

The agency grants Certificate of Origin to trader no more than 02 (two) working hours after receiving application in hardcopy.

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Thứ Tư, 22 tháng 5, 2019

How Could a Vietnamese Change the Name?



According to the civil laws in Vietnam, a citizen’s full name including first name, middle name and last name has been registered at birth in the birth certificate when properly issued. If a Vietnamese wishes to change the name, there must be a legitimate reasons and the process and procedure have to follow Vietnam Civil Code.

Individuals may request competent state agencies to recognize the change of name in the following cases:

a) At the request of person with name which the use such names causes confusion, emotional impact on family, honor, rights and lawful interests of that person;

b) At the request of the adoptive parents about changing names for adoption or adopted child ceases adoption with the adoptive parents or when the birth parents request to regain the name that originally used;

c) At the request of the father, the mother or the child when determining parents of children;

d) Changing the family name of a child from their father’s family name to their mother’s family name or vice versa;

e) Changing the names of persons found their origins;

f) Change the name of the persons which gender is redefined;

g) The other case law on civil registration regulations.

Due to the complexity of the process in some cases, a law firm in Vietnam could help with a service which clients could same time and cost rather than trying to carry out the process themselves.

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Thứ Ba, 21 tháng 5, 2019

Cybersecurity law in Vietnam and data privacy issue



Vietnam’s cybersecurity law has been passed on 12/6/2018, will officially come into effect on Jan 1st, 2019. This new law attracts attention, and contributions from many people. From the state management’s perspective, Cybersecurity Law is to protect national security. From business and users’ perspective, organizations that provide Internet services, social networks service, IT services companies, Fintech services, ecommerce websites and individuals whom use these services…. are directly affected groups.

At present, much of the information is stored on e-mail, social networking platforms…According to Article 26 of Vietnam Cybersecurity Law, it is required to “Store in Vietnam for the personal information of people who use services in Vietnam and the important data related to national security; Having headquarters or set up representative offices in Vietnam”. It is understood that only foreign organizations with headquarters or representative offices in Vietnam are permitted to provide internet, social networking, fintech services in Vietnam. Accordingly, to continue the related services in Vietnam, organizations providing services such as the internet, social networks, fintech services need to establish a representative office in Vietnam and for storing data relating to users in Vietnam.

Point a, Clause 2 of Article 26 of Vietnam Cybersecurity Law regulates that organizations provide internet, social network services have to: “establish information authentication mechanism when user registers account; protect confidential information, user accounts; disclose users’ information to network security division under the Ministry of Public Security upon request in writing”. It is suggested that, in order to protect the user’s information and to avoid abuse of power, the Ministry of Public Security should have specific guidelines for management.

According Article 21 of Vietnam’s Constitution in 2013: “everyone has the right to inviolability of private life, personal and confidential family secrets; have the right to defend the honor and prestige” “No one shall be permitted to open, control, illegally seize any correspondence, telephone, telegram and other forms of private communication.” With the introduction of the Vietnam Cybersecurity Law, the management of information, of service providers, and personal private information pose challenges in terms of data privacy.

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Thứ Hai, 20 tháng 5, 2019

Definition and Classification of Cosmetics in Vietnam



The definition of cosmetic in Vietnam regulations is currently compatible with the definition of ASEAN Cosmetic Convention provided in Article 2.1 of Schedule B of ASEAN Cosmetic Directive. Accordingly, cosmetic product is a substance or a preparation which is used for touch with outside parts of human body (skin, hair system, finger nails, toenails, lip, and outside reproduction organ) or teeth and mouth mucous membrane with main purpose in order to cleanse, aromatize, change the outward characteristics, form, adjust body’s smell, safeguard body, or maintain the human body in good condition.

For the classification of cosmetic, under the current Vietnam regulations, the criteria for the classification of cosmetic products based on the features, uses, recipe ingredients, route of administration of the product and the definition of cosmetic. Namely, beauty products are classified into 20 groups of products as the following:

-Creams, emulsions, lotions, gels and oils for skin (hands, face, feet, etc.)

-Face masks (with the exception of chemical peeling products)

-Tinted bases (liquids, pastes, powders)

-Make-up powders, after-bath powder, hygienic powders, etc

-Toilet soaps, deodorant soaps, etc.

-Perfumes, toilet waters and eau de Cologne

-Bath or shower preparations (salts, foams, oils. gels, etc.)

-Depilatories

-Deodorants and anti-perspirants

-Hair care products include: hair tints and bleaches, products for waving, straightening and fixing, setting products, cleansing products (lotions, powders, shampoos), conditioning products (lotions, creams, oils), hairdressing products (lotions, lacquers, brilliantines)

-Shaving product (creams, foams, lotions, etc.)

-Products for making-up and removing make-up from the face and the eyes

-Products intended for application to the lips

-Products for care of the teeth and the mouth

-Products for nail care and make-up

-Products for external intimate hygiene

-Sunbathing products

-Products for tanning without sun

-Skin whitening products

-Anti-wrinkle products

Besides, some products are not classified as cosmetic as the following:

-The product permanently adjust, restore or alter the function of the body by the immune mechanism, metabolic or pharmacological mechanism

-Products sweetened oral, injection or contact with other parts of the body (i.e. the nasal mucous membranes, genitals in, …)

-The mosquito, air fresheners, fabric softeners, water, toilet bowl cleaner, liquid oxygen aging, alcoholic antiseptic 70 0,90 0 alcohol, product Clean dentures are not exposed to the oral cavity, false eyelashes, eye cleaning solution/nose/ear protection products nasal congestion, anti-snoring products, vaginal lubrication gel, ultrasound gel, the exposure in genital, rectal enema, anesthesia, reduce/ control the swelling/edema, dermatitis treatment, hypoallergenic, anti-fungal, anti-viral, stimulates hair growth products/grow eyelashes products removed/reduced fat/reduced fat/reduced body size, weight loss products, prevent/stop the growth of hair, the process stops sweating, permanent tattoo ink, product remove scars, keloids reduction, wound cleaning products.

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Thứ Năm, 16 tháng 5, 2019

How Foreigners Could Work in Vietnam Legally



Foreigners working in business set-up in Vietnam are expatriates which are normally required work permit in Vietnam.

As the Vietnam law’s restrictions to encourage employment of local employee over foreign employee, normally, the employment of an expatriate is limited to a managerial position or to a position which Vietnamese employee are not yet qualified.

There are exemption of work permit in Vietnam as following cases:

A capital contributing member or owner of a limited liability company which is registered to operate in Vietnam;

A member of the Board of Management of a shareholding company which is registered to operate in Vietnam;

A chief of a representative office or of a project of an international organization or a non-governmental organization in Vietnam;

The foreigner enters Vietnam for less than three months to offer services;

The foreigner enters Vietnam to work for less than three months or to handle an emergency case and that cannot adequately be addressed within Vietnam;

A lawyer who has received a Certificate for the practice of law in Vietnam granted by the Ministry of Justice;

The foreigner is a student studying and working in Vietnam;

An intra-corporate transferee working in Vietnam;

The foreigner provides expert and technical consultancy services or undertakes other tasks with respect to research, formulation, evaluation, monitoring and assessment, management and implementation of a program or project using official development aid (“ODA”);

The foreigner has a media license issued by the MOFA;

The foreigner is appointed by a competent authority of a foreign country to teach at an international school which is managed by a foreign diplomatic office or an international organization in Vietnam;

The foreigner a volunteer;

The foreigner has a master’s degree or higher or similar qualifications and provides consultancy, teaching, or conducts scientific research at a university or vocational college for a period not exceeding thirty (30) days; or

The foreigner implements an international agreement signed by a Vietnamese government authority, a provincial body or a central socio-political organization.

In order for an expatriate to be exempted from a work permit, the employer must file an application with the provincial labor authority. Chairman of the provincial People’s Committee will be consulted and if approval, he/she will issue a written consent to each employer regarding the employment of expatriate.
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Thứ Tư, 15 tháng 5, 2019

Differences Between Limited Liability Company and Joint Stock Company



Vietnam Law allows the establishment of a company in Vietnam in various forms. It is an important step in investment process.

Investors could choose different forms depending on the needs and capacity on the ability to raise capital and sharing the risk in business as well as the management and operating costs. Each form will have its own organizational structure, operating mechanism, rights and obligations specified under Law on Enterprise 2014.

Currently, Limited Liability Company (“LTD”) and Joint Stock Company (“JSC”) are two popular enterprise forms operating in Vietnam.

What is the difference between these two forms of companies?

I. Organizational Structure

Number of members/shareholders:

LTD

-Single member LTD: Having only one member (member can be an organization or an individual);

-Multi members LTD: Having at least 2 members and not exceed 50 members (member can be an organization or an individual).

JSC

Joint Stock Company has at least 3 shareholders and not limit the maximum number.

Management structure

LTD

-Single member LTD

Single member LTD owner by an organization shall be organized under two models: Company president, Director/General director and Supervisor; (OR) Members Council, Director/General director and Supervisor.

Single member LTD owner by an individual shall be organized as follows: Company president, Director/General director.

-Multi members LTD

Multi members shall be organized by: LTD Council members, Chairman of the Members Council and Director/General director;

Multi members LTD having 11 members or more shall establish the Board of Supervisors.

JSC

JSC can be organized under two models: General Meeting of Shareholders, Board of Directors, Board of Supervisors and Director/General director; (OR) General Meeting of Shareholders, Board of Directors (Board of Internal Supervisors under Board of Directors) and Director/General director.

II. Capital Contribution

Raising capital

LTD

-Single member LTD: Owner increases charter capital

-Multi members LTD: Members increase their charter capital, or increasing the number of capital contributors

JSC

Different from LTD, JSC can raise its capital by various methods as follows: Selling shares to existing shareholders; Selling shares individually to non-shareholders; Issuing shres on the stock market.

Transfer of contributed capital

LTD

-Single member LTD: Owner transfers a part of contributed capital to other persons and this could lead to changes of the type of business or other procedures if all capital is transferred (for instance in a M&A deal).

-Multi members LTD: Offer the stakes to other members in proportion to their stakes in the company under the same conditions; The stakes could only be transferred to other persons if the members do not buy or do not buy completely within 30 days from the offering date.

JSC

The shareholders of JSC are free for transfer their contributed capital after 03 years from the establishment.

Having said that, LTD is a type of enterprise that the capital contribution is not the only link between the members of the company but they are also linked together by relationship. They may be acquaintances and trust each other to jointly contribute capital to establish an enterprise. Therefore, the management of the LTD is as complicated as JSC. With the larger the number of shareholders, the level of capital mobilization, voting power to decide on issues of the company based on the ratio of capital contribution of each shareholder, the management and operation of the JSC is more complex.

The ability to raise capital of a JSC is higher than a LTD. Because, JSC can issue shares to the public in the form of securities. When the stocks are listed on stock exchange, the information of company’s business operations must be public and more transparent.

The procedure to set up a company in form of an LTD or a JSC has not much differences.

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Thứ Ba, 14 tháng 5, 2019

Authorized Representative of the Company Under New Law on Enterprises



In order to raise the standard of business in Vietnam, Law on Enterprises 2015 reduced many administrative procedures of establishing and running a business, including the representative authorization of the member or shareholder of the company.

One of the distinguished amendments: authorized representative of the member or shareholder which is legal entity is not required to inform the licensing authority (i.e. Department of Planning and Investment).

Law on Enterprises 2015 provides that the appointment of an authorized representative must be made in written, notified to the Company and take valid from the receipt date of the Company while under Law on Enterprises 2005, the same must be registered at the licensing office.

In addition, any restrictions by the authorizing member on his/her authorized representative in the performance as member in the Members’ Council or shareholder in the Shareholders’ Meeting shall not enforce against the third party.

ANT Lawyers is a Vietnam law firm with international standards, recognized by IFLR1000 on Financial and Corporate practice. The firm provides a wide range of legal services, including M&A, corporate establishment, business advisory, tax advisory, dispute resolution for multinational and domestic clients.

This publication is designed to provide updated information of legal matters, and does not constitute professional advice.

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Thứ Hai, 13 tháng 5, 2019

Vietnam and ASEAN Cosmetic Regulations



Vietnam cosmetic regulations are compatible with the ASEAN cosmetic regulations.

On September 2nd 2003, on behalf of the Government of Vietnam, the Vietnam Minister of Trade and Commerce signed an agreement on the ASEAN harmonized Cosmetic Regulatory Scheme, in which, the terms specified in the agreement is fully implemented since January 1st, 2008.
The agreement aims to unify cosmetic management in the ASEAN countries, and is toward a common market of ASEAN, strengthen cooperation between member States in ensuring safety, quality and beneficial feature of all cosmetic products on the ASEAN market and remove the restrictions on the cosmetic business between member States through the harmonization of technical regulations.

The agreement on the ASEAN Harmonized cosmetic regulatory scheme is considered a cosmetic treaty representing the unity of regulations on management of cosmetic member countries of the agreement. Being a member of the agreement, Vietnam cosmetic regulations are compatible with the ASEAN cosmetic regulations.

This publication is designed to provide updated information of legal matters, and does not constitute professional advice.

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Thứ Tư, 8 tháng 5, 2019

Birth Registration with Foreign Element



From January 1st 2016, the Law on Civil Status of 2014 went into effect, replacing other documents on the registration and management of civil status. Accordingly, the law has clearly defined the authority for registration and management of civil status of the Commune People’s Committee and the District People’s Committee. Commune People’s Committee in charge of the registration and management of civic status that do not have foreign element. The remaining case that have foreign element will be under the jurisdiction of registration and management of the District People’s Committee.

For the case of children born in the territory of Vietnam, whose father is foreigner and mother is Vietnamese, but the parent does not have legal marriage (in other words: illegitimate children), the competent for birth registration belongs to the District People’s Committee where the father or mother reside.

In terms of the birth registration procedure, the Law on Civil Status provides only the procedure in case that the parents of the birth registration children have legal marriage.

The remaining case that parents of the birth registration children do not have legal then according to the provisions of the Law on Civil Status, if the father wants his name to be included in the birth certificate of the children, he have to register through adoption procedure. Accordingly, the father requesting for children adoption have to submit the declaration, documents to prove paternity, copy of passport or valid documents that can replace passport to prove his identity to the District People’s Committee where the father of the children reside.

Within 15 days of receiving valid dossier, the civil status authority will carry out the verification, listed the recognition of father and children at the headquarters of the District People’s Committee within 07 consecutive days. At the same time, the Commune People’s Committee where the child resides will list within 07 consecutive days at the headquarters of the Commune People’s Committee.

After the listing has been expired, the Justice Department proposed Chairman of the District People’s Committee to decide on the recognition of the father and son. Once registering for the recognition of the father and children, Chairman of the District People’s Committee provide excerpts for the parties.

The registration procedure for recognition of father and children must be done simultaneously or be conducted prior to birth registration of the children.



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Investment Incentives for IT area in Vietnam



Vietnam is attracting investors from around the world to make investment through setting up IT service company in Vietnam

Since 2010, Vietnam has initiated and invested more resources in the information technology which has been realized as an area that could create a competitive edge for Vietnam. Recently, the Vietnam government has put a legal frameworks to attract more investment in this area, with the issuance of Decree No.154/2013/ND-CP, taking effect from Jan 1st, 2014 guiding particularly on management of the focused information technology areas.

Accordingly, the enterprises at focused information technology areas will enjoy tax benefits i.e. income tax rate of 10% within 15 years, in some specific cases, extended to 30 years; exempt 50% within 5 continuous years. They are exempted the import tax when importing goods to build fixed properties, manufacture such as machines, equipment, parts, assembles.

Besides, these enterprises may enjoy convenient conditions in customs procedure, incentives in export tax, investment credit, import credit and favorable policies for enterprises business in high technology area.

The focused information technology area must have at least 2,000 employees specialized in information technology; in case of emphasizing in software manufacture, digital content, information technology service, 1,000 specialized employees will be employed at least.

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Thứ Ba, 7 tháng 5, 2019

List of Investment Sectors With Conditions Applied to Foreign Investors



In general, investment is encouraged in Vietnam. However, when setting up a company in Vietnam, foreign investors need to be aware of investment sectors with conditions applied to foreign investors in Vietnam.

The following sectors with investment conditions are issued with Decree 108/2006/ND-CP dated September 22nd 2006 of the Government on guiding the implementation of some Articles in the Law on Investment:

1. Radio and television.

2. Production, publication and distribution of cultural products.

3. Mining and mineral processing.

4. Set up telecommunication network infrastructures, broadcasting, provide telecommunications and internet services.

5. Construction of the public postal network, provide postal services, delivery services.

6. Construction and operation of river ports, sea ports, airports.

7. Transportation of goods and passengers by railway, airway, road, sea, inland waterway.

8. Fishing.

9. Tobacco production.


11. Businesses in the field of export, import and distribution.

12. Education and training.

13. Hospital and clinic.

14. Other areas of investment in the international treaties to which Vietnam is a member that restricting the market access for foreign investors.

The investment conditions applicable to foreign investors with investment projects in the fields of investment provided with this list shall be in accordance with the provisions of the international treaties to which Vietnam is a member.

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Thứ Hai, 6 tháng 5, 2019

Handling Labour Matters in Post M&A Transaction



While undertaking M&A transaction, the buyer may face legal risks regarding license, assets, compliance, including labor matters. One of the challenges of the buyer post M&A is the integration of the labour force into the new structure while ensuring rights and interests of their existing employee complying with the laws.

When negotiating a deal, the buyer and target company may try to retain the advantage combining the strengths of both side. However, it’s challenging to just merely add personnel of the existing of departments with same functions together and group them under i.e. administration departments, sales department, accounting department…Further, one of the benefits of M&A is to improve the effectiveness of the operation through managing the similar scale of the combined business with less resources. Therefore, the re-arrangement of personnel is required and therefore conflicts will have to be managed between employees and employer.

Pursuant to Article 45 of Labor Code: in case of merging, consolidating, splitting or separating an enterprise, the successive employer shall continue employing the existing workforce and modify and supplement their labor contracts; if the existing workforce cannot be fully employed, the successive employer shall prepare a suitable labour plan and implement a labor utilization plan. In case of transferring asset ownership or use rights of an enterprise, the preceding employer shall have to prepare a labor utilization plan.

The labor utilization plan shall have the following contents: the lists and numbers of workforce to be continued employment and workforce to be re-trained for continued employment; the list and number of employees to be retired; the lists and numbers of employees to be assigned part-time jobs and those to terminate their labor contracts; measures and financial sources for implementing the plan. This is responsibility of the employer when the business arise change which greatly affects employee.

Regarding dismissed employee, the employer shall pay a job-loss allowance to the employee who has worked regularly for the employer for 12 months or longer. The job-loss allowance is equal to 1 month of salary for each working year, but must not be lower than 2 months of salary. The working period used for the calculation of job-loss allowance is the total time during which the employee actually works for the employer minus the time during which the employee benefits from unemployment insurance in accordance with the Law of Social Insurance and the working period for which the employer has paid a severance allowance to the employee.

It is important that the seller to retain M&A law firm to assist with the post M&A process to ensure the labour compliance is followed during the integration of labour resources.

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Thứ Sáu, 3 tháng 5, 2019

How to apply for a baby birth certificate in Vietnam?



For children of foreigner and Vietnamese born in Vietnam, the procedure to apply for birth certificate in Vietnam is carried out at the Vietnam’s provincial Department of Justice.

In today’s globalized world, it has become more common that people from different cultural backgrounds travel, and meet their spouse. Their children were born with happiness however they would face difficulties when applying for birth certificate for the newborn in Vietnam. For the parents, the difficulties of registering birth certificate in Vietnam could range from the choice of name, nationality, or whether or not the child is born out of wedlock.

When a child between a foreigner and a Vietnamese is born in Vietnam, according to the regulation on the registration and management of civil status, the Department of Justice will be the Vietnam government agency issuing the birth certificate.

In cases where parents choose foreign nationality for the child, they must obtain the agreement of the parents about the choice of nationality. The valid agreement of the parents about the choice of nationality shall be certified by the local authority.

After receiving a application dossier for birth certificate for newborn in Vietnam, civil status officials of the Department of Justice records in the birth registration and original birth certificate. The director of the Department of Justice shall sign and issue an original birth certificate for the newborn. Copies of birth certificates are issued at the request of the applicant.

For children born out of wedlock, if the father is not identified, the information about the father in the birth registration book and birth certificate are left blank. When the father officially agrees to recognize father for a child, he has to carry out the procedure at the Vietnam’s provincial Department of Justice. The birth certificate could also be revised to reflect the father’s details into the new birth certificate. This birth certificate will be very important when the father applies foreign citizenship for the child.

The child can be named according to parental choice to be recorded on the birth certificate.
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Thứ Năm, 2 tháng 5, 2019

Forms of Investment in Vietnam



Foreign investors when setting up business in Vietnam need to be advised by a law firm in Vietnam on forms of investment.

According to the Vietnam Law on Investment (2005), foreign investors in Vietnam through direct investment and indirect investment.

The direct investment is when the investor invests its invested capital and participates in the management of the investment activities, includes:

– To establish economic organizations in the form of one hundred per cent (100%) capital of domestic investors or one hundred per cent (100%) capital of foreign investors.

– To establish joint venture economic organizations between domestic and foreign investors.

– To invest in the contractual forms of: BCC, BO, BTO, and BT.

– To invest in business development.

– To purchase shares or to contribute capital in order to participate in management of investment activities.

– To invest in the carrying out of a merger and acquisition of an enterprise.

– To carry out other forms of direct investment.

Foreign investor will be considered for acceptance by the competent authorities and be granted Investment Certificate.

Indirect investment means a form of investment whereby the investor contribute the capital but do not participate directly in the management of the investment activity, includes:

– Purchase of shareholding, shares, bonds and other valuable papers;

– Through securities investment funds;

– Through other intermediary financial institutions.

Types of enterprise for foreign investors to invest in Vietnam

a) Limited Liability Company

Limited Liability Company is a form of enterprise which is established by contributing of members. A member shall be liable for the debts and other property obligations of the enterprise within the amount of capital that it has undertaken to contribute to the enterprise.

Limited liability companies are regulated by two types:

– One member Limited Liability Company is an enterprise owned by one organization or individual;

– Limited Liability Company with two or more members is an enterprise owned by organizations or individuals, in which the number of members shall not less than two members and not exceed fifty.

Organizational and management structure of Limited Liability Company normally comprise of a Member’s Council, General Director or Director.

b) Joint Stock Company

Joint Stock Company is an enterprise which has charter capital divided into equal portions called shares. The minimum number of shareholders shall be three and there shall be no restriction on the maximum number.

Shareholders shall be liable for the debts and other property obligations of the enterprise only within the amount of capital contributed to the enterprise.

Joint Stock Companies may issue all types of securities to raise funds. Founding shareholders must together register to subscribe at least twenty per cent (20%) of the number of ordinary shares which may be offered for sale.

The main difference between Joint Stock Company and Limited Liability Company is the Joint Stock Company can raise funds by offering shares or securities. In addition, an enterprise tends to join the Stock exchanges or public company must be a Joint Stock Company. Management system of Joint Stock Company is more complicated than Liability Company.

c) Partnership

A partnership is an enterprise which must be at least two members being co-owners of the company jointly conducting business under one common name. In addition to unlimited liability partners, there may be limited liability partners.

Unlimited liability partners must be individuals who shall be liable for the obligations of the company to the extent of all of their assets. Limited liability partners shall only be liable for the debts of the company to the extent of the amount of capital they have contributed to the company.

d) Representative Office of foreign trader

A foreign business entity or a foreign trader is allowed to establish Representative Office in Vietnam.

Representative office of a foreign business entity in Vietnam (referred as “Representative Office”) means a subsidiary unit of the foreign business entity, established in accordance with the law of Vietnam in order to survey markets and to undertake a number of commercial enhancement activities permitted by the law of Vietnam.

Representative Office will need to apply and obtain the establishment license; and have a seal bearing the name of the representative office.

Representative Office is not allowed to directly conduct profit making activities in Vietnam (i.e: the execution of contracts, direct payment or receipt of funds, sale or purchase of goods, or provision of services), but the representative Office is permitted to

-To operate strictly in accordance with the purposes, scope and duration stated in the license for establishment of such representative office;

-To rent offices and to lease or purchase the equipment and facilities necessary for the operation of the Representative Office;

-To recruit Vietnamese and foreign employees to work for the Representative Office in -accordance with the law of Vietnam;

To open accounts in foreign currency and in Vietnamese Dong sourced from foreign currency at banks which are licensed to operate in Vietnam, and to use such accounts solely for the operation of the Representative Office.

e) Branch of foreign trader

The Branch of a foreign business entity in Vietnam (referred as “The Branch”) means a subsidiary unit of the foreign business entity, established in accordance with the law of Vietnam in order to enter into contracts in Vietnam and conduct activities being the purchase and sale of goods and other commercial activities consistent with its license for establishment in accordance with the law of Vietnam and any international treaty to which the Socialist Republic of Vietnam is a member.

The Branch will need to apply and obtain the establishment license; and have a seal bearing the name of the Branch.

The Branch is permitted to conduct activities being the purchase and sale of goods and other commercial activities consistent with its license for establishment in accordance with the law of Vietnam and any international treaty to which the Socialist Republic of Vietnam is a member.

f) The investing measures by signing Contracts

Business co-operation contract (BCC) means the investment form signed between investors in order to co-operate in business and to share profits or products without creating a legal entity.

Build-operate-transfer contract (BOT) means the investment form signed by a competent State body and an investor in order to construct and operate commercially an infrastructure facility for a fixed duration; and, upon expiry of the duration, the investor shall, without compensation, transfer such facility to the State of Vietnam.

Build-transfer-operate contract (BTO) means the investment form signed by a competent State body and an investor in order to construct an infrastructure facility; and, upon completion of construction, the investor shall transfer the facility to the State of Vietnam and the Government shall grant the investor the right to operate commercially such facility for a fixed duration in order to recover the invested capital and gain profits.

Build-transfer contract (BT) means the investment form signed by a competent State body and an investor in order to construct an infrastructure facility; and, upon completion of construction, the investor shall transfer the facility to the State of Vietnam and the Government shall create conditions for the investor to implement another project in order to recover the invested capital and gain profits or to make a payment to the investor in accordance with an agreement in the BT contract.

Foreign investors may sign BOT, BT and BTO contracts with a competent State body to implement infrastructure construction projects in Vietnam. Typically, the contracts are for projects in the fields of transportation, electricity production, water supply, drainage and waste treatment.

The rights and obligations of the foreign investor will be regulated by the signed BOT, BT and BTO contract. The Government encourages both public- and private-sector investors to participate in BOT, BTO and BT in the following sectors:

(i) Construction, operation and management of brand-new infrastructure facilities; and

(ii) Renovation, expansion, modernization, operation and management of the existing infrastructure facilities such as:

• Roads, bridges, tunnels, and ferry landings;

• Railway bridges and railway tunnels;

• Airports, seaports and river ports;

• Clean water supply systems; sewage systems;

• Wastewater, waste collecting and handling systems;

• Power plants and power transmission lines;

• Infrastructure works of health service, education, training, career training, culture, sport and offices of State agencies; and

• Other projects as may be determined by the Prime Minister

How ANT Lawyers Could Help Your Business?

Please click here to learn more about ANT Lawyers Foreign Investment Practice or contact our lawyers in Vietnam for advice via email ant@antlawyers.vn or call our office at +84 28 730 86 529



Thứ Sáu, 26 tháng 4, 2019

Criminal Record Card in Vietnam



Criminal record cards or Police check provides criminal or judicial information about a person in Vietnam. The Vietnam law on criminal record governs the process to obtain the criminal records cards.

Accordingly, to obtain the Criminal Record cards in Vietnam, the applicant must apply at the provincial/ municipal Justice Department in Vietnam. For foreigners residing in Vietnam, he/she has to submit the request to the Department of Justice where he/she resides and receives the results at Justice Department.

Documents required are:

i) the written application form;

ii) certified photocopies of passports;

iii) a copy of the permanent or Temporary resident card in Vietnam;

iv) authorization letter in case of authorized application for Criminal Record card (if the authorized persons are not the parents, spouse or children). The written authorization must be certified or authenticated in accordance with the law;

v) application letter for granting Criminal Record.

During the process of applying for the Criminal Record, the applicant might has to work with the Public Securities agencies; the Court: in case there are not sufficient evidence at the police agencies to conclude that the applicant has no criminal records or the content of the applicant’s criminal records is not clear; People’s Committees of communes, wards and townships; agencies, organizations and agencies related proceedings: in case of coordination to verify the conditions of having his/her conviction automatically written off.

In practice, there are cases when the foreigner already left Vietnam and now he/she is in need of Criminal Record for the time he/she resided in Vietnam. We have successfully assist clients in various cases.

Our lawyers in Vietnam constantly follow up with changes of law to provide the client with update for better decision making process.



How ANT Lawyers Could Help Your Business?

Please click here to learn more about ANT Lawyers Civil Matters Practice or contact our lawyers in Vietnam for advice via email ant@antlawyers.vn or call our office at +84 28 730 86 529


Thứ Tư, 24 tháng 4, 2019

Tax Obligations of Representative Offices in Vietnam



Foreign entities have found Vietnam as an increasing attractive destination for investment. They could consider entering Vietnam in various forms, including setting up representative offices.

“A representative office is a dependent unit of the enterprise, having the task of representing under authorization the interests of the enterprise and protecting such interests” (Clause 2 of article 45, Law on Enterprises 2014). “Representative office shall perform the functions of liaison offices, market surveys, promotion of business opportunities for traders they represent, excluding those in which the establishment of representative offices in that field, it is stipulated in specialized legal documents” (Article 30 – Decree No.07/2016/ND-CP decree detailed regulations on establishment of representative offices or branches of foreign traders in Vietnam under Laws on Commerce).

A representative office is a dependent unit of a foreign enterprise in Vietnam, and it acts under the authorization of foreign enterprises. Representative office shall not conduct business activities therefore, the tax obligations of the representative office are limited, such as:

Firstly, as representative office does not involve profit making activity, hence there are no Value Added Tax, Corporate Income Tax, Annual Due incurred.

Secondly, representative office has to register its tax code, to deduct and pay Personal Income Tax on behalf of its employees working in the representative office or deduct and pay contractor taxes for foreign sub-contractors (if any).

How ANT Lawyers Could Help Your Business?

The changes of laws will be monitored by ANT Lawyers. For advice or service request, please contact us via email ant@antlawyers.vn or call +84 28 730 86 529